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Hello there! Iā€™m Pei-En Li.

Thanks for visiting my E-Portfolio of Urban Theory.

Complex Systems

This week we discussed the complex system, sustainability and resilience.

A complex system is considered a multi-loop and non-linear system, and various factors are interconnected and fed back to each other. As a result, there is no single way to solve these wicked problems. Many problems in cities are complex and intertwined. Examples include informal housing, pollution and transportation issues.


In class, we used mind maps in groups to describe a complex system. We chose the informal settlement that is often found in some big cities.

This is a brief infographic to analyze this wicked problem from five aspects. It can be seen that the existence of a complex system lies in the fact that all aspects also affect each other. If only one aspect is changed, the problem will not be solved.

(Click on the image to see more clearly šŸ”)

Mind-map on mindmiester

Mind-map on mindmiester